Isode Military Messaging Whitepapers
|Interconnecting XMPP and IRC
This whitepaper looks at how IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and XMPP (eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) text chat services can be interconnected. It describes both services briefly and then looks at how a number of existing IRC/XMPP gateways work. It then describes the approach taken by the new IRC Gateway capability in Isode's M-Link XMPP server, looking at the operational, security and migration benefits of this approach.
(14th May 2013)
|Deploying IRC, Federated MUC and XMPP Guards
Military communication makes extensive use of text chat services, in particular those using IRC (Internet Relay Chat) and XMPP (eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol). The primary approach is use of group chat services to share information. These services are often deployed in hostile environments, and so it is important that they are resilient and will continue to operate when elements of the service fail. Communication needs to operate between partners and across security boundaries (Cross Domain).
(14th May 2013)
|Using Flow Control and Timers in ACP 142 to provide Optimized Message Transfer of HF Radio
This White Paper looks at message transfer over HF Radio, and looks at how the ACP 142 protocol can achieve optimal performance, and the use of flow control and timers to achieve this. HF Radio can be an unreliable channel, and so it is important that performance is optimized in the event of channel failures. Use of timers to deal with failures is considered in detail.
(30th July 2012)
|Security Label Capabilities in M-Switch
This White Paper looks at how Isode’s M-Switch product can make use of Security Labels to perform Access Control and how it can map between a wide range of Security Label formats and message transport mechanisms.
(2nd May 2012)
|Using Isode Security Label Server for EDRMS
This whitepaper looks at how Isode’s Security Label Server product can be used to provide Security Label and Security Label based Access Control services for an external application, via a simple interface which gives good functional separation and low integration cost. EDRMS (Electronic Document and Records Management System) is used as an example application, to illustrate the benefits of this approach and to consider how best to use Security Labels with EDRMS.
(11th Apr 2012)
|Easy Security Label Support for Email Clients
Use of Security Labels is important in many Military and Intelligence organizations to ensure correct handling of information. Correct handling of Security Labels is complex, and solutions to use them with email generally result in heavyweight desktop solutions. This paper looks at a new approach which minimizes email client complexity, enabling easy support in a wide range of email clients and improving deployment characteristics.
(10th Jan 2012)
|X.400 Disaster Recovery
This white paper describes how Isode X.400 servers can be deployed to support off site disaster recovery. It looks at the new (in R15.1) features in M-Store X.400, which are central to the X.400 disaster recovery approach and then looks at how this can be used in conjunction with other Isode disaster recovery capabilities to provide disaster recovery for a full X.400 deployment. This approach is appropriate for Aviation (AMHS) and Military (STANAG 4406) deployments.
(12th December 2011)
|Using Message Acknowledgements for Tracking, Correlation and Fire & Forget
This whitepaper looks at how tracking end to end message acknowledgements can improve service reliability for mission critical messaging. This is achieved by enhancing message tracking services and providing information on messages being delivered and read. It then describes how this can be extended to provide a "Fire and Forget" quality service, using operator alerts and guaranteed action points (GAP). The paper also shows how these capabilities are provided in Isode's M-Switch product.
(7th December 2011)
|ACP 145: Isode Support of International MMHS Gateways
ACP 145 is a specification from the CCEB (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK, USA) of how Military Messaging is exchanged between nations. This white paper gives an overview of ACP 145, and how it is supported by the Isode product set. It looks at how this can be used to support both STANAG 4406 national systems, and SMTP national systems using MIXER conversion.
(10th November 2011)
|Military Messaging (MMHS) over SMTP
Military Message Handling (MMHS) is specified in STANAG 4406, which operates over the X.400 Messaging protocols. This white paper looks at how MMHS could be provided over SMTP noting where this can be done with existing standards, where there is active work to define standards, and where there are currently no standards. It concludes with a summary of what is needed to make MMHS over SMTP a reality that can meet operational requirements.
(14th March 2011)
|SCRAM: A New Protocol for Password Authentication
SCRAM (Salted Challenge Response) is a new protocol and data storage mechanism to support password based authentication. This white paper looks at the security benefits of SCRAM, and how it should be used to complement PKI based strong authentication. It describes Isode’s current support and future plans for SCRAM.
(19th May 2010)
|Performance Measurements of Applications using IP over HF Radio
This paper sets out the results of measurements made when running applications and layer protocols to support applications over IP via HF Radio using STANAG 5066. The goal of this work was to get a quantitative measure of the performance impact of using applications running over IP over HF Radio in comparison with applications running directly over specialized HF Radio protocols. This paper concludes that the performance impact of using IP is massive, with small message latency increase from at typical value of 6-20 seconds using applications optimized for HF to a smallest measured value of 89 seconds when using IP.
(3rd September 2009)
|Performance Measurements of Messaging Protocols over HF Radio
This white paper sets out and analyses the results of a measurements of various messaging protocols over HF Radio. HF Radio has unusual performance and reliability characteristics, which has led to specific application protocols being developed. This paper finds that three of the four protocols analysed perform well. It concludes with a discussion of the best choice of messaging protocol for various types of deployment.
(5th Aug 2009)
|Using Isode's Messaging and Directory Applications with a Data Diode
Data Diodes are low level hardware devices, with very high assurance, that allow data to flow in one direction while preventing data from flowing in the opposite direction. This white paper shows how Isode applications can be used in conjunction with a Data Diode to give high assurance one way flow of data.
(28th May 2009)
|File Transfer by Email
File Transfer by Email can be useful for moving data between systems when standard file or data transfer mechanisms are not available. In particular it is useful for supporting Directory Replication, as described in the Isode white paper Directory Replication by Email and over 'Air Gap'. This paper looks at requirements for File Transfer by Email, and describes the architecture of Isode’s solution.
(27th Jan 2009)
|Messaging Protocols for HF Radio
Messaging is important for military and other deployments of HF Radio. Formal Military Messaging (STANAG 4406) over HF Radio is described in a previous Isode White Paper. This paper looks at how to optimize STANAG 4406 messaging for point to point HF networks and how to provide Internet Messaging over multi-node and point to point HF networks.
(28th Aug 2008)
MMHS Performance over HF Radio and Satellite: STANAG 4406 Annex E Encoding
This white paper is the first of a set of papers reporting on measurements made of MMHS (Military Message Handling Systems) operating over HF Radio and Satellite. This paper looks at the encoding and compression of STANAG 4406 Annex E messages, which is common to both HF Radio and Satellite transmission.
(10th Jun 2008)
Performance over Satellite
This white paper is the second of a set of papers reporting on measurements made of MMHS (Military Message Handling Systems) operating over HF Radio and Satellite. This paper looks at operation over Satellite networks, and compares the performance of STANAG 4406 Annex E which is designed for constrained bandwidth networks with STANAG 4406 Annex A, which is intended for high speed networks.
(10th Jun 2008)
Radio & Network Centric Warfare
Modern military communications are a key component of Network Centric Warfare. HF Radios are used extensively for military communications, and, although very slow, provide effective long distance communication in a wide range of situations. This paper looks at how HF Radio fits with Network Centric Warfare, and looks at approaches for integrating HF Radios to maximize their effectiveness.
(9th Apr 2008)
|Military Messaging over HF Radio and Satellite using STANAG 4406 Annex E
Military Messages often need to be transferred over low bandwidth networks, in particular HF Radio and Satellite Networks. The two military specifications for this type of messaging environment are NATO's STANAG 4406 Annex E and ACP 142 developed by the CCEB (Combined Communications-Electronics Board – AU, CA, NZ, US, UK). This paper describes scenarios that require these special technologies, and then gives an overview of the technologies and how they address the technical problems.
(14th Feb 2008)
|The Architecture of Isode's STANAG 4406 Annex E Solution
Military Messages often need to be transferred over low bandwidth networks, in particular HF Radio and Satellite Networks. Isode provides ACP 142 and STANAG 4406 Annex E as a part of its M-Switch X.400 product. This paper describes Isode's approach to implementing these protocols, and how this addresses basic and advanced operational problems, management approaches and integration with other components as part of a larger solution.
(14th Feb 2008)
|Why IP over HF Radio should be Avoided
HF Radios are important for military communications. IP is widely used and is the basis for most network communication. This paper looks at use of IP over HF Radio and the efficiency of different types of application over IP and concludes that applications intended for regular use over HF Radio should not use IP and should instead be directly integrated with STANAG 5066.
(14th Feb 2008)
|Military Messaging over HF Radio: A comparison of ACP 127 and STANAG 4406 Annex E
ACP 127 is the older NATO standard for formal military messaging that is being replaced by STANAG 4406. Both standards are used over HF Radio, and for STANAG 4406, this is specified in Annex E. This paper looks at how both standards work, and shows the benefits of the newer technologies.
(14th Feb 2008)
|Testing STANAG 4406 Military Messaging over IP Differentiated Services
IP Differentiated Services (DiffServ) is a standardized Internet approach for dealing with different classes of traffic. We have added support for differentiated services to M-Switch X.400, so that its priority handling (which supports standard X.400 three level priority, and the STANAG 4406 military messaging six level priority) can utilize differentiated services at the IP level. Isode and NATO staff put together a setup to test military messaging in conjunction with DiffServ, and ran tests on two days in August and November 2007. This paper describes the tests that were done and analyses the results.
(20th Dec 2007)
|Why use a P7 Message Store? Getting
X.400 messages to and from end-users
The goal of this paper is to give an understanding of what an X.400 Message Store, such as Isode's M-Store X.400 does, and where and how it should be used. In order to do this, the paper looks at general requirements for sending and receiving (X.400) messages, and looks at various approaches that can be taken.
(19th Jun 2007)
|M-Store X.400 Benchmarks
This paper provides performance benchmarks for Isode's M-Store X.400 product (R14) in a number of common usage scenarios including core P3 and P7 operations, throughput tests and handling of large messages.
(31st May 2007)
|X.400 Bridgehead for Microsoft Exchange:
Technical Architecture and Back-end Features
X.400 Bridgehead for Microsoft Exchange ("X.400 Bridgehead") is a new product from Boldon James, produced in collaboration with Isode. It's primary goal is to provide X.400 protocol connectivity for Microsoft Exchange 2007, this capability was provided as a part of Exchange 2003 and earlier versions, but is not included with Exchange 2007. This paper describes the architecture of X.400 Bridgehead, and summarizes it's key features. It is particularly oriented towards understanding the capabilities of X.400 Bridgehead in the context of older versions of Exchange and full X.400 Message Transfer Agents (MTAs).
(11th May 2007)
|Sending FLASH Messages Quickly: Techniques
for Low Latency Message Switching and Precedence Handling
Military Messaging systems, and other messaging systems with time critical operational requirements such as Aviation (AMHS), require that high precedence messages are submitted, transferred and delivered very quickly. In this paper we look at how messages can be handled to achieve message switching times of a few hundred milli-seconds, for both low and high volumes of traffic. The importance of Permanent Associations as a way of avoiding delays in opening a connection is described and consideration is given to Precedence Handling, describing techniques that ensure high precedence traffic gets optimum (low) latency.
(9th May 2007)
Military Messaging for HF Radio and other Low Bandwidth Links
The general requirements and protocol architecture for military messaging over low bandwidth communications were described in the Isode White Paper Military Messaging Over Low Bandwidth Networks. This paper looks in more detail at how various server components are packaged together, looking at both software and hardware combinations, and showing how users and user agents fit into the system. The paper looks in detail at single user systems, from both hardware and software perspective.
(15th Feb 2007)
This paper gives performance benchmarks for Isode's M-Switch X.400, a high-performance X.400 Message Transfer Agent. M-Switch X.400 is deployed by Isode customers in a number of solutions areas and these benchmarks re-enforce our belief that M-Switch X.400 is substantially faster than any other X.400 MTA.
(20th Nov 2007)
|Why X.400 is
good for high reliability messaging
X.400 was specified in the 1980s, with the expectation that it would be the universal standard for email. While this did not happen, X.400 is still used for many applications, particularly where high reliability is required. This paper summarizes the key features of X.400 that make it good for applications needing high reliability, with particular focus on capabilities not available with Internet email.
(11th May 2006)
Reliable Message Transport using X.400
For many commercial and personal applications, Internet mail is sufficiently reliable to be trusted and treated as if it were 100% reliable. For some applications, such as aviation, military, and key government communications this is not good enough. This paper looks at what is needed to provide highly reliable message transport: reliably taking a message from its originator and delivering to the recipient(s).
(8th Feb 2005)
|MIXER: X.400 and Internet Mail
This article by Steve Kille, published in Messaging Magazine, describes MIXER (MIME Internet X.400 Enhanced Relay), the Internet Standard for conversion between X.400 Messaging and Internet mail.
|Isode Support for Kerberos, Active Directory and Single Sign On
This paper looks at how Isode client and server products can make use of Kerberos authentication, in configurations where Isode provides both client and server, and in conjunction with third party clients and servers, including Microsoft Active Directory. It looks at how Single Sign On (SSO) can be achieved for Isode products using Kerberos, and compares this with use of other SSO approaches.
(22nd April 2010)
|SNMP and Isode Servers
This white paper looks at the role of SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) in managing systems using Isode messaging and directory servers. It explains why SNMP support is provided, the sub-agent architecture used by Isode products, and approaches to deploying SNMP monitoring.
(29th May 2007)
|ACP133: The Military Directory Standard
ACP 133 is the NATO Standard for Military Directory: "Common Directory Services and Procedures". The current version is "Edition B", published in February 2000. "Edition C" is being developed, and is expected to be published shortly. This white paper gives a short summary of ACP 133 aimed at readers with some familiarity with directory services.
(17th Aug 2006)
Monitoring and Control of Systems using Isode Servers
Isode server products are deployed in a wide variety of situations, and usually there is a high service reliance placed on them. Isode’s approach to server design and management is that the products are building blocks, with maximum use of open standard protocols for interconnection. Management is almost entirely client/server. This combination of building block + client/server means that the approach to operational management needs to be considered as part of the overall system design. This paper explains the approach Isode has taken and the options provided, that can be used to build an operational system.
(1st March 2006)
|Monitoring and Managing Messaging
Deployments with Very High Service Requirements: Isode Servers and
In order to provide a very high grade messaging service, it is critical to monitor the service and be able to take action where problems are detected. This white paper looks at various approaches to monitoring systems containing the Isode servers, and in particular looks at use of the Sentra product from Insider Technologies.
(2nd Nov 2004)
|Isode Management Architecture:
Client/Server and Directory
Isode's core business is messaging and directory servers. Isode products are designed for service oriented environments, such as ISPs, military, government and aviation. These are environments where there are stringent management requirements. This white paper sets out the approaches that Isode takes to address management requirements.
(21st Sept 2004)